Note that the customized physical vulnerability models are regional level-based models, while the ones from HAZUS-MH are country level-based models. Partial or total failure/cracking of columns and beams. A building’s physical vulnerability to earthquakes describes its susceptibility to damage that can be caused by a given ground-motion Intensity Measure (IM). Usually, dividing the respective building stock into a certain number of building typology classes provides a better alternative that allows for a more manageable and hence efficient study. Many research programs have produced a compendium of empirical Damage Factor values (including material and labor costs), given a certain damage threshold, and which can be used as default values in cases when economic data (i.e., building repair or reconstruction costs for a given damage state ds) are not available (D’Ayala, Meslem, Vamvatsikos, Porter, & Rossetto, 2015). In 2015, earthquakes, floods, heatwaves and … Substantial to heavy damage (moderate structural damage, heavy non-structural damage): Large and extensive cracks in most walls. In general, the categorization of building damage can be either done in a qualitative descriptive manner by describing the damaging effects to the structure, or in a quantitative manner by assigning capacity thresholds (i.e., an empirical definition of damage state thresholds) to an individual structural element or to the entire building. 13 main attributes and numerous attribute values (373 in total), Brzev, Scawthorn, Charleson, Allen, Greene, Jaiswal, & Silva (2013), Lungu, Aldea, Arion, Vacareanu, Petrescu, & Cornea (2001); Milutinovic & Trendafiloski (2003), Lang, Erduran, Kumar, Yasunov, & Tailiakova (2012), Lang, Molina-Palacios, Lindholm, & Balan (2012). This, in turn, has pushed governments from different earthquake-prone countries to implement many research programs aimed at developing prevention and mitigation actions, or in refining code provisions and guidelines. The vulnerability classes range from A to F, from the most vulnerable to the least vulnerable typologies, where the first three classes (A to C) cover adobe and stone houses, brick buildings, and reinforced-concrete constructions without any ERD, while vulnerability classes D to F address reinforced and confined masonry constructions, concrete buildings with a certain level of ERD, and steel and timber buildings. Extensive cracking and crushing; portions of face course shed. Small plaster cracks at corners of door and window openings and wallceiling intersections; small cracks in masonry chimneys and masonry veneers. These 3 approaches are explained in detail, guidance is provided on how to apply them and what factors to take into account, considering also effort and uncertainty. Special care should be given to these factors when selecting the existing vulnerability models that are available from the literature, in order to ensure a reliable earthquake loss assessment. Moderate damage (slight structural damage, moderate non-structural damage): Cracks in many walls. Its vulnerability to disasters, however, and its ability to cope with them are down to far more than simple geography. It is the main purpose of the present overview to provide specialist and nonspecialist readers with comprehensive information that would help the reader gain a clear understanding of the term “building physical vulnerability” and its use in the field of earthquake engineering and disaster risk management. Consequently, it is necessary either to use empirical data that was collected from other earthquakes and/or countries (with similar construction practice; e.g., Roca, Goula, Susagna, Chávez, González, & Reinoso, 2006) or to revert to expert opinion to supplement the database (ATC, 1985; Kappos, Stylianidis, & Pitilakis, 1998). In this section you can explore the different types of resources available for you to use, to share with others, or to promote GEM with. In general, physical vulnerability has become one of the main key components used as model input data by agencies when developinresponse (physical damage), and cost of repair for a particular class of buildings or infrastructure facilities. • Photos of building Level I + • Plan sketch • Dimensions of key building components (column size, wall layout etc.) Small cracks are assumed to be visible with a maximum width of less than 1/8″ (cracks wider than 1/8″ are referred to as “large” cracks). The functions form the basis for damage estimation and for loss estimation in terms of fatalities (people that lost their lives) and repair costs of buildings. An example of this method is the Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA), which was initially developed by Shome and Cornell (1999) and then later improved by Vamvatsikos and Cornell (2002, 2005). Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Natural Hazard Science. The generation of Damage Probability Matrices (DPM), which, in discrete form, express the conditional probability of a damage state (dsi) being reached given a certain level of ground-motion intensity measure (IM), has been one of the most common vulnerability assessment methods from this category and used in different parts of the world. Within this perspective, and for a given building typology or portfolio, physical vulnerability defines the probability of suffering a certain level of physical damage. Partial or total failure/cracking of infill panels and other secondary elements. Table 7 shows an example of DPMs for EMS-98 vulnerability class A, containing a qualitative description of the proportion of buildings that belong to each damage grade for various levels of intensity. The location where each IDA curve becomes flat identifies the IM level beyond which it is assumed that global collapse of the building will occur. (2012) studied methods from different categories which led to the development of guideline documents that would assist analysts in ensuring the consistency between the purpose of the type of analysis (approach/method), the mathematical modeling, and the type and quality of data input to be used (Rossetto, D’Ayala, Ioannou, & Meslem, 2014; D’Ayala, Meslem, Vamvatsikos, Porter, & Rossetto, 2015; D’Ayala & Meslem, 2013; Jaiswal, Aspinall, Perkins, Wald, & Porter, 2012). Nonstructural components can be divided into two categories: those which may contribute to the response behavior of the structure (and thereby to the monetary loss connected to the damage), and those which do not contribute to the response behavior of the structure, but which are important to consider as they contribute to the reconstruction costs. Extensive crushing and spalling of veneers at corners of openings. For a building experiencing different damage states dsi, the conditional function expresses the probability of a damage state dsi sustained by the building, being reached or exceeded given a certain level of ground-motion intensity measure IM. Figure 10. Abstract. Large plaster or gypsum-board cracks at corners of door and window openings; small diagonal cracks across shear wall panels exhibited by small cracks in stucco and gypsum wall panels; large cracks in brick chimneys; toppling of tall masonry chimneys. Physical vulnerability models selection framework considering size and regional factor and their uncertainties. Defining the characteristics and typology of a building is a major step and represents the starting point of a physical vulnerability assessment. as accurately as possible. The human vulnerability to earthquake-induced landslides is quantitatively estimated through constructing a systematic structure considering the uncertainties of the control factors and their inter-relationships. Hence, it represents the mean damage an individual building of this typology will experience. Overall, the building classification should cover all types of conventional buildings that are available and that are representative for the target area. The 2015 Gorkha earthquake killed nearly 9,000 individuals and ruined entire communities in 14 districts in central Nepal. Previous studies mostly focus on generalized vulnerability assessment from landslides or other types of slope failures, such as debris flow and rockfall, while the long-term damage induced by slow-moving landslides is usually ignored. Depending on the level of complexity and material type of the building, the length of time required to perform a computation process might be significant. The world has witnessed many earthquake disaster events causing significant property damage and economic losses, as well as social losses. Within the RISK-UE framework, a research project consortium financed by the European Commission, a procedure was introduced which allowed the generation of DPMs considering the EMS-98 building vulnerability classes (Milutinovic & Trendafiloski, 2003). The results of a vulnerability assessment can be presented either in the form of discrete values or continuous curves/functions. Since its introduction, this component has received much attention by research engineers and insurance analysts and has resulted in the development of a large number of methods, which can be divided into three main categories: empirical, analytical, and expert judgment/opinion. Typically, uncertainty in geometric parameters is accounted for by randomizing parameters such as buildings’ plan dimensions, height, and number of stories; uncertainty in structural parameters is accounted for by randomizing parameters such as bay length and column orientation; uncertainty in mechanical parameters of the construction materials is accounted for by randomizing parameters such as compressive strength and elasticity modulus of concrete, tensile strength, and elasticity modulus of steel reinforcement, hardening ratio of steel, and compressive strength of masonry infill; modeling uncertainty is typically introduced in some studies by randomizing the parameters of the hysteric models. 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